When discussing the Vietnam War or Second Indochina War, there are many elements of the conflict one could cover. From napalm, punji sticks, and landmines to the Ho Chi Minh Trail, Tet Offensive and the Montagnards, the Vietnam War was a very long, and casualty-ridden war. While one side ultimately may have won, both the U.S. and Communist-backed North Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian peoples felt the brunt of this conflict.
And according to Historynet.com, the Vietnam War is the generally used moniker for the Second Indochina War. The Vietnam war was noted to have lasted from 1954 to 1975. And in 1975, Saigon did fall, which signaled the end of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and a win for the North Vietnamese.
However, there were many impressive campaigns and many unsung heroes that were part of MACVSOG or (Military Assistance Command Vietnam Studies and Observation Group). This group name was later shortened to Studies and Observation Group. Jerry “MAD DOG” Shriver, Robert “Bob” Howard, Dick Meadows, Walter Shumate, Billy Waugh, Larry Thorne, Fred Zabitosky, Jon Cavaiani, Roy Benavidez, and Norm Doney are just some of the names of these brave men who served these highly classified groups and missions from 24 January 1964 – May 1972.
The downsides to these super-secret missions were that the casualties were noted to have surpassed 100 percent. According to HistoryNet.com, that is the “highest sustained American loss rate since the Civil War.” The most important statistic is that in 1968, every man that was part of those MACV-SOG missions was wounded — with half of those were killed. Even though this particular reconnaissance group took high losses, they were known for having the highest ratio of kills (158-to-1). This kill number is the most successful in U.S. military history.
HistoryNet.com noted that the Green Berets, which are U.S. Army Special Forces were responsible for carrying out a large number of the most harrowing and challenging special operations of the Vietnam War. And depending on the time that these SOG millions occurred, they would be given unique names like “Prairie Fire” or “Shining Brass.” The Ho Chi Minh Trail, which was part of Laos and the Sihanouk Trail (named for Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia) were places that the U.S. recon teams in these SOG teams would concentrate their gathering information, sabbatage missions and more. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Air Force Combat Controllers and the Navy SEALs would be vetted through the Special Operations Augmentation (SOA) as part of SOG — this included the Army Green Berets. These missions utilized all land and sea forces to get things done. The SOA gave special “cover” while these secret orders were taking place.
The term, “over the fence,” was used for those Special Operations Groups and other military forces entering Laos and Cambodia, when the U.S. was not supposed to “officially” be doing recon and other operations in those areas. It was a slang term, which was used predominantly during the Vietnam War.
The small teams that were part of these Spec Ops Groups had a lot of time “over the fence.” SOGs are a legendary group for tales of bravery, patriotism and the hells of being in Nam. SOG was hatched on January 16, 1964, as noted on the website, Macvsog.cc.
This Special Operations Group was active for eight years with their over the fence operations in areas of southern Laos, Cambodia and especially along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. These Spec Operations groups included a 12-man SPIKE Reconnaissance Teams as well as HATCHET Forces to assist as backups. These Special Forces HATCHET platoons were a crucial part of engaging North Vietnamese Communist Forces on the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
U.S. forces used many B-52s to bomb critical areas of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. These trails had been assigned to Spec Operations units in March of 1965, under the direction of COMUSMACV. These special recon missions included precise drops by U.S. helicopters (in and out) of designated zones as well as B-52 bombings. These B-52s were brought in to help stifle any activities of the North Vietnamese, Viet Cong, Pathet Lao, and the Khmer Rouge along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
There was also the Psychological Operations Group, which was mainly focused on the North Vietnamese war efforts against U.S. and allied forces during Nam. There has been (PSYOPS) during many American wars, especially in modern times, but the U.S. used special tactics and techniques to try and get the edge in the Vietnam War. Even as these Spec operations were all top-secret at the time, the U.S. was also involved in areas of South Vietnam that were being dominated by the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). While their method was one of the unconventional warfare operations, these Spec Operations numbered in the 600s or more over a short period.
And as noted on the website, Psywarrior.com, the “Psychological Studies Branch” were directly responsible for creating “black propaganda” or OP-33.
Psywarrior.com stated that the OP-33, which was “patterned after the old OSS Morale Operations Division, OP-33 operated behind such heavy security that few Americans in Asia knew of its existence, which was essential as any trace of SOG’s involvement would destroy a deception’s effectiveness.”
Psywarrior.com also noted about the OP-33 that it was not a small operation. This black operation had a budget of 3.7 million dollars in 1967 and approximately 150 staff members. Half of the staff were known to be civilian Vietnamese. The other half of this group were U.S. military. There was also at least a dozen CIA officers supporting the OP-33.
Some of these messages the U.S. propagated included the idea that the NVA hated and feared the Chinese, which was trying to aggravate tensions among these two groups.
Some of the other propaganda efforts by the U.S. including sending false messages about many Chinese troops, which were located in North Vietnam romancing the women of NVA soldiers who were stationed far away as well as reports that the Communist Chinese were providing the NVA with poor ammunition. The U.S. was able to use some of these kernels of truth to boost the credibility of the stories and propaganda being fed to the NVA.